Software Testing Travel domain

1 CRS and GDS
Computer Reservations System (CRS) is a computerized system used to store and retrieve information and conduct transactions related to travel (e.g Booking ticket from
CRS operations that book and sell tickets for multiple airlines are known as Global Distribution Systems (GDS - Only agents uses these systems).
The following is a partial list of Global Distribution Systems:
• 1A Amadeus
• 1S Sabre (previously 1W)
• 1G Galileo
• 1P Worldspan
2 Cabin A compartment where passenger seats are installed. More than one RBD may be assigned to a cabin for sale.  Often the terms "cabin" class and "compartment" are used interchangeably.
3 Class Section of seats on any particular flight (Economy, Business etc).
4 RBD Reservations Booking Designator: The code used in reservations transactions to identify a compartment on an aircraft and/or a special inventory control. The RBDs are typically represented by alphabetic characters (A, Z etc).
5 ARS Airline Reservation System is a computerized system containing information about schedules, availability, fares and related services, and through which airline inventory is maintained, reservations can be made and/or tickets issued.  Typically, only airline offices (ATO, CTO, CRC, etc) or their General Sales Agents (GSAs) utilize the ARS.
6 ADL Additions and Deletions List. List of passengers and related data sent from a Reservations system to a Departure Control system for a flight/date, subsequent to the PNL.
7 DCS Departure Control System: An automated method of performing check-in, capacity and load control and dispatch of flights. Generally, these type of systems are owned and/or operated by an airline or system provider.
8 PFS Passenger Final Sales. List of passengers and related data sent at flight close out from a Departure Control system to a Reservations system, containing deviations from the PNL/ADL for this station. 
9 PIL The PIL is a teletype message geneerated by the DCS for the local cabin crew to advise special information about passengers on board. 
10 PNR Passenger Name Record: A record of each passenger’s travel requirements which contains all information necessary to enable reservations to be processed and controlled by the booking and participating airlines. The basic record may contain one or more passengers.  Although different systems provide varying facilities, all PNRs contain at least passenger name(s), itinerary, and contact information.  May other fields may be present such as fare, ticketing, seat selection, etc.
11 PNL Passenger Name List. List of passengers and related data sent from a Reservations system to a Departure Control system for a flight date.
12 Record Locator A record locator is an alphanumeric code, typically 6 characters in length, used in airline reservation systems to access a specific record. When a passenger, travel agent or airline employee refers to a record locator they typically mean a pointer to a specific reservation which is known as a Passenger Name Record or PNR.
13 Code Sharing A code share flight is a flight that is marketed by one carrier and operated by another.
The airline that actually operates the flight is called the Operating Carrier. The company or companies that sell tickets for that flight but do not actually operate it are called Marketing Carriers.
14 Interline Interline partnerships allow two or more airlines to issue tickets on behalf of each other, while retaining the designator code of the other airline.
15 City Pair Combination of two city and/or airport codes representing the origin and destination of a flight leg, segment or routing.
16 Round Trip Equivalent to the term “Return Journey”, is defined as (a) travel from one point to another and return by the same air route used outbound whether or not the fares outbound and inbound be the same, or (b) travel from one point to another and return by an air route different from that used outbound for which the same normal, through, one way fare is established.
17 Circle trip When the traveler starts from one location, goes to multiple locations and come back at same location where he started e.g. JFK->LON->DEL->JFK 
18 One Way When the traveler just goes from Origin to Destination e.g. JFK->LON 
19 Round the world The journey in which the traveler travels around the world and crosses the international timeline, visiting multiple places e.g. JFK->SYD->HKG->DEL->LON->JFK
20 Open Jaw When the traveler goes from one place to another by air, from there, goes to a third place by other means of travel, and then takes a flight back to where he started e.g., he goes from JFK to LAX by air, from LAX to SFO by car, and then from SFO to JFK by air. 
21 Stopover Equivalent to a "break of journey", means a deliberate interruption of a journey by the passenger agreed to in advance by the airline, at a point between the place of departure and the place of destination. 
22 Flight Leg One take-off and one landing of a plane is called a flight leg with an associated flight number e.g. DEL-BOM IC123
23 Flight Segment  Passenger booking on one flight number which may include one or more flight legs e.g. if passenger goes IC123 DEL-BOM-TRV, then flight segment is IC123 DEL-TRV
24 Direct flights A flight that has a stop but no change in plane or flight number
25 Change of Gauge A flight with a stop and a change in plane, but the flight number is the same
26 Nonstop Flights A flight that has no stops and there is no change in plane or flight number
27 Connect Point An airport available as a connection location for a multi-leg itinerary
28 Married Segments Married segments is a term used to identify two or more segments in an itinerary which are actioned as a single unit (set).  Acceptance and sending of marriage information is controlled by bilateral agreements.
29 Ad Hoc Schedule A variation, addition or cancellation from the basic schedule of one or more flights on single dates.
30 Airline Designators IATA airline designators are two or three character codes assigned by the International Air Transport Association (IATA).  Designators are used to identify an airline for all commercial purposes, including reservations, timetables, tickets, tariffs, air waybills and in airline interline telecommunications.
31 Airport Terminal All buildings used for arrival and departure handling of aircraft.
32 ARNK Arrival unknown.  Used in reservations to fill a gap in the itinerary.   
33 Cabin Baggage Baggage of which the passenger retains custody (also known as hand or unchecked).
34 Cargo Any goods carried on an aircraft and covered by an air waybill.
35 Check-in The check-in process involves those activities necessary to evaluate passengers and make them ready to board flights. Check-in can be performed by humans or by machines (self-service devices such as kiosks).
36 Child A person who has reached his/her second birthday but not his/her 12th birthday as of the date of commencement of travel.
37 Infant A person who has not reached his/her second birthday as of the date of commencement of travel.
38 Expedite Baggage Passenger baggage that is not traveling with the passenger due to mishandling and is being forwarded to the passenger.
39 FOID Form of identification. Typically used to identify that the passenger is who he says he is.  This information may be passed in the reservation as an SSR and subsequently passed to a PNL/ADL to Departure Control in a .R/ element.  
40 FTL Frequent Traveler List. The FTL is a teletype message generated by the DCS to advise selected applications of all locally boarded passengers who checked-in with a frequent traveller account number. 
41 GMT Greenwich Mean Time.
42 IATA The International Air Transport Associationis an international industry trade group of airlines headquartered in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.  All the Airline rules and regulations are defined by IATA.
a. IATA publishes standards for use in the airline industry.
b. IATA maintains the Timatic database containing cross border passenger documentation requirements.
c. IATA coordinates the Scheduling process which governs the allocation and exchange of slots at congested airports worldwide.
43 International Flight Leg A flight leg between two stations to which different ISO country codes apply.
44 ISO International Organisation for Standardisation.  This organization assigns and maintains such information as country codes. 
45 Itinerary The part of the PNR describing the flight segments booked for the passengers named in the name field of the PNR.
46 Leg The operation between a departure station and the next arrival station.
47 Non-Stop Flight which operates between a board point and an off point in a single leg without any intermediate landings.
48 NOREC No record. A passenger who was boarded on a flight and was ticketed for that flight, but was not on the PNL/ADL.
The No Rec (No Record) processing page is used to create a new passenger record for passengers who have a paper ticket but no actual reservation on the flight being checked-in.
49 GOSHO Go show. A departed passenger that is not shown on a PNL/ADL and does not have an OK ticket.
The Go Show processing page is designed to accommodate passengers who have booked and paid a travel agent for their journey on the flight being checked-in, but no paper ticket has been issued/electronically recorded.  It is designed only to be applicable to agents/airlines using manual paper tickets.
50 NOSHO No show.  A passenger who had a reservation on a flight and is shown on the PNL/ADL but who failed to use the reservation for reasons other than misconnect.
51 OPEN A term used to specify in a PNR and on a ticket that specific flight is not booked but that the passenger will travel by air and has paid for a flight.
52 Open Ended Schedule A schedule submitted for processing without an end date. It is assumed that the schedule will be active indefinitely.
53 PTC Passenger Type Code is a code typically used to identify the type of passenger, e.g., adult, infant, etc. PTC is often used to identify the type of fare.
54 SSR Special Service Requirement (SSR). PNR record and/or message element which allows an agent to request a special service, designate a condition or provide mandatory information. Examples include special meals, identification of deaf passenger, wheelchair assistance, seat requests and government required information (APIS). 
55 Waitlist When used with PNRs, refers to the status of a passenger for a specific flight. The passenger is not confirmed but has been listed for the flight and is awaiting confirmation.
56 Vendor Provider of a travel service to agents. Vendors may be airlines, hotel chains, car rental firms or any other provider of services which may be sold through a CRS.
57 Yield Control Philosophy applied to many systems which attempts to maximize the income of the vendor by restricting sales of low-yield products in favor of higher yielding alternatives. For example, selling full-fare seats rather than discounted excursion seats. This may be achieved for example by manipulation of the status sent to distribution systems in an availability response by disallowing the sale of short haul flights unless in conjunction with a long-haul flight of the same vendor.  The term "Revenue Management" is also applied to this process.


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